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Volcano Mount Vesusius Essays - Volcanology, Mount Somma

Spring of gushing lava Mount Vesusius Mount Vesuvius is a spring of gushing lava situated in southern Italy, close to the cove of Naples ...

Thursday, August 27, 2020

Volcano Mount Vesusius Essays - Volcanology, Mount Somma

Spring of gushing lava Mount Vesusius Mount Vesuvius is a spring of gushing lava situated in southern Italy, close to the cove of Naples and the city of Naples. It is the main dynamic spring of gushing lava on the European territory. Vesuvius ascends to a tallness of 1277 m (4190 ft). Vesuvio (Vesuvius) is likely the most well known fountain of liquid magma on earth, and is one of the most hazardous. Mount Vesuvius is a strato-spring of gushing lava comprising of a volcanic cone (Gran Cono) that was worked inside a highest point caldera (Mount Somma). The Somma-Vesuvius complex has shaped in the course of the most recent 25,000 years by methods for a succession of emissions of variable touchiness, going from the peaceful magma outpourings that described a significant part of the most recent movement (for instance from 1881 to 1899 and from 1926 to 1930) to the touchy Plinian ejections, including the one that pulverized Pompeii and executed a great many individuals in 79 A.D. At any rate seven Plinian ejections have been recognized in the eruptive history of Somma-Vesuvius (1). Each was gone before by a significant stretch of quietness, which on account of the 79 A.D. emission kept going around 700 years. These ejections were taken care of by thick water-rich phonotitic to tephritic phonolitic magmas that seem to have separated in shallow crustal conditions. They are accepted to have gradually filled a store where separation was driven by compositional convection. A base profundity of around 3 km was construed for the highest point of the magmatic store from mineral equilibria of changeable carbonate ejecta (2). Liquid incorporations ([CO.sub.2] and [H.sub.2]O-[CO.sub.2]) in clinopyroxenes from cumulate and knobs show a catching weight of 1.0 to 2.5 kbar at around 1200 [degrees]C, recommending that these minerals solidified at profundities of 4 to 10 km (3). The separated magma part was about 30% of the all out magma in the repository, and a volume of around 2 to 3 [km.sup.3] was surmised for the repository (4). The magma rising to the surface happened through a course of conceivably 70 to 100 m in distance across (5). A warm model predicts that such a repository ought to contain a center of mostly liquid magma (6) that can be recognized by high-goals seismic tomography. The most punctual outcropping volcanic stores go back to around 25,000 years prior. The magmas saw at a - 1125 m drill opening are around 0,3-0,5 million years of age. It is known for the principal emission of which an observer account is safeguarded, in 79 AD. Topographically, Vesuvio is one of a kind for its unordinary adaptability. Its movement running from Hawaiian-style arrival of fluid magma, fountaining and magma lakes, over Strombolian and Vulcanian action to fiercely touchy, plinian occasions that produce pyroclastic streams and floods. Vesuvius is a mind boggling spring of gushing lava. An unpredictable fountain of liquid magma is a broad gathering of spatially, transiently, and hereditarily related major and minor [volcanic] focuses with there related magma streams and pyroclastic streams. Vesuvius has a long history. The most seasoned dated stone from the fountain of liquid magma is around 300,000 years of age. It was gathered from an all around penetrated close to the fountain of liquid magma and was presumably part of the Somma spring of gushing lava. After Somma fallen around 17,000 years back, Vesuvius started to frame. Four kinds of ejection have been reported: a) Plinian (AD 79, Pompeii type) occasions with across the board air fall and major pyroclastic floods and streams; b) sub-Plinian to Plinian, all the more tolerably measured emissions (AD 472, 1631) with substantial tephra falls around the spring of gushing lava and pyroclastic streams and floods; c) little to medium-sized, Strombolian to Vulcanian e jections (various occasions during the 1631-1944 cycle, for example, 1906 and 1944) with neighborhood overwhelming tephra falls and significant magma streams and little pyroclastic torrential slides limited to the dynamic cone itself. The fourth sort it is the littlest of all emission types saw at Vesuvio. It is the tenacious Strombolian to Hawaiian style emission that describes practically the entirety of an eruptive sub-cycle, for example, was the situation during the period 1913-1944. Action of this sort is for the most part confined to the focal cavity where at least one intracrateral cones structure, and to the sides of the cone. Magma streams from the highest point cavity or from the sub terminal vents stretch out past the cone's base. A to some degree specific sort of relentless action is the moderate arrival of a lot of magma from sub terminal breaks to frame thick heaps of magma with minimal sidelong augmentation, such

Saturday, August 22, 2020

The Lighthouse of Alexandria

The Lighthouse of Alexandria The popular Lighthouse of Alexandria, called Pharos, was worked around 250 B.C. to assist sailors with exploring the harbor of Alexandria in Egypt. It was really a wonder of building, remaining in any event 400 feet tall, making it probably the tallest structure in the old world. The Lighthouse of Alexandria was likewise determinedly constructed, standing tall for more than 1,500 years, until it was at long last toppled by tremors around 1375 A.D. The Lighthouse of Alexandria was remarkable and thought about one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Reason The city of Alexandria was established in 332 B.C. by Alexander the Great. Situated in Egypt, only 20 miles west of the Nile River, Alexandria was flawlessly arranged to turn into a significant Mediterranean port, helping the city to thrive. Before long, Alexandria got one of the most significant urban areas of the old world, known far and wide for its well known library. The main hindrance was that sailors thought that it was hard to maintain a strategic distance from the stones and shores when drawing nearer Alexandria’s harbor. To help with that, just as to offer an extremely fantastic expression, Ptolemy Soter (Alexander the Great’s replacement) requested a beacon to be manufactured. This was to be the main structure at any point manufactured exclusively to be a beacon. It was to take roughly 40 years for the Lighthouse at Alexandria to be constructed, at long last being done around 250 B.C. Design There’s a ton we don’t think about the Lighthouse of Alexandria, yet we do comprehend what it resembled. Since the Lighthouse was a symbol of Alexandria, its picture showed up in numerous spots, remembering for antiquated coins. Planned by Sostrates of Knidos, the Lighthouse of Alexandria was a strikingly tall structure. Situated on the eastern finish of the island of Pharos close to the passageway of Alexandria’s harbor, the Lighthouse was soon itself called â€Å"Pharos.† The Lighthouse was at any rate 450 feet high and made of three areas. The bottommost area was square and held government workplaces and pens. The center segment was an octagon and held an overhang where visitors could sit, appreciate the view, and be served refreshments. The top area was barrel shaped and held the fire that was persistently lit to guard sailors. At the top was a huge sculpture of Poseidon, the Greek divine force of the ocean. Incredibly, inside this goliath beacon was a spiraling slope that hinted at the highest point of the bottommost segment. This permitted ponies and wagons to convey supplies to the top segments. It is obscure what precisely was utilized to make the fire at the highest point of the Lighthouse. Wood was impossible since it was rare in the district. Whatever was utilized, the light was powerful †sailors could without much of a stretch see the light from miles away and could in this manner discover their path securely to port. Pulverization The Lighthouse of Alexandria represented 1,500 years - a surprising number considering it was an emptied out structure the stature of a 40-story building. Curiously, most beacons today look like the shape and structure of the Lighthouse of Alexandria. At last, the Lighthouse outlasted the Greek and Roman domains. It was then consumed into the Arab realm, however its significance melted away when Egypt’s capital was moved from Alexandria to Cairo. Having guarded sailors for quite a long time, the Lighthouse of Alexandria was at last pulverized by a tremor at some point around 1375 A.D. A portion of its squares were taken and used to assemble a stronghold for the ruler of Egypt; others fell into the sea. In 1994, French classicist Jean Yves Empereur, of the French National Research Center,â investigated the harbor of Alexandria and found at any rate a couple of these squares still in the water. Sources Curlee, Lynn. Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. New York: Atheneum Books, 2002.Silverberg, Robert. The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. New York: Macmillan Company, 1970.

Friday, August 21, 2020

How to Do a Research Paper Fast

How to Do a Research Paper FastThe first question you need to ask yourself when looking for ideas about how to do a research paper fast is: what am I really trying to achieve? You might be too ambitious and ask for a research paper, which is so incredibly long that it makes the average essay look short. That, however, is not the case and you should remember that any kind of study material needs to have some kind of good basic content that can stand on its own.If you want to make it in your career or for your school paper then you will need to have a good foundation to build on. Your thesis or topic has to have enough content to give you information you need to know. Once you have this knowledge, you can come up with good topics for your research paper that will have you covering all the bases.Abstracts are also very important. Having an abstract means that you are asking for someone to read your research paper and compare your topic to others that have already been published. This sh ould be taken in a formal way, as you will need to see if you are writing something that can stand out above the rest. Of course, you do not want to waste time doing an abstract which will end up being ignored.A good idea is to start writing about the type of paper you want. It might not be the best idea to write about this topic based on a book or website that you are reading about it. Instead, you should do a research about the topic before you begin writing. This way, you will know exactly what you want and this will give you a little more freedom as to how to do a research paper fast.The other great idea for writing your paper is to write your outline. You need to give yourself a deadline for each part of your paper and you can either use this time to write your outline or you can follow the outline with each part of your paper. This will ensure that the same content is covered for each section of your paper. For example, you might use a one-page summary and then cover each sect ion of your paper in turn.Your next step is to brainstorm. This is where you look at all the different topics that you have researched and then you find ideas for what each topic is about. It might be a good idea to not do this all at once but instead, focus on one or two topics at a time.When you are finished, make sure that you have written enough to get your point across and have covered all the bases. This means that you should not waste your time looking up information that you already know. This is why a good idea is to look up a website or book and then do research on the topic that it covers. Then, you will have a base to start from when you are looking at your own topic.When you think about how to do a research paper fast, you have to make sure that you have covered all the bases. Even if you have looked up a reference in a book or website, it is still essential that you have enough information to get your point across. This way, you can write a report that is clear writing .

Monday, May 25, 2020

Steroids Are Drugs Containing Hormones Or Similar Substances

Steroids or anabolic steroids are drugs containing hormones or similar substances, which are used to increase strength and grow muscles (Donald Talmadge 1998). When first developed in Europe in the 30s, they were used to treat under-nourished patients and induce their healing after surgery. It was in the 50s that competitive weightlifters discovered steroids to improve athletic performance. Athletes of other sports took after them, so that gradually, at least one out of15 male high school seniors in the US has used the drugs. Some of them just want to increase strength and size, while others want to grow up faster to catch up with peers. Anabolic steroids can be bought over the counter in some countries, but a doctor’s prescription is required in the United States (Donald Talmadge). Like other hormones, steroids are synthesized in the cells of an endocrine gland, secreted into the blood stream and then travel to the target organs (Scovell 2004). Their hydrophobic nature makes a muscle cell store more nitrogen, which facilitates muscle growth. They are rela ted to the male sex hormone, androgen. Although it is illegal to keep or distribute these drugs for non-medical purposes, many professional and amateur athletes take them to improve performance. The danger appears to lie specifically in the un-regulated dosage. Athletes take as many as 100 times the prescribed or regulated dose for medical use. This exposes the users to both short-term and long-term healthShow MoreRelatedThe Use of Ergogenic Compounds to Improve Athletic Performance1609 Words   |  7 Pagesevidence to improve strength or endurance. The use of drugs and other substances has persisted for nearly a century. Ergogenic aids are used to improve an athlete’s performance in as many ways as possible. This includes:  § Physiological aids  § Nutritional aids  § Mechanical aids  § Pharmacological/ hormonal aids  § Psychological aids The purpose of all these different substances, training advantages is as they give an improvedRead MoreAdolescence And Its Effects On Adult Behavior Essay1585 Words   |  7 PagesAdolescence is a turbulent time in every individual’s life, containing marked behavioral and biological changes as the brain rapidly develops into its mature form. This period overlaps with puberty, the process of attaining sexual maturation, and throughout its progression intricate differences between the two sexes are revealed that were not previously apparent. (Spear, 2000; TEXTBOOK) It is thought that adolescence is a necessary process, a period of transition through which individuals prepareRead MoreDrug Classification System ( Atc )904 Words   |  4 PagesNovember 30, 2016 Drugs In pharmacology, a pharmaceutical drug, also called a medication or medicine, is a chemical substance used to treat, cure, prevent, or diagnose a disease or to promote well-being. Traditionally drugs were obtained through extraction from medicinal plants, but more recently also by organic synthesis. Pharmaceutical drugs may be used for a limited duration, or on a regular basis for chronic disorders. Pharmaceutical drugs are often classified into groups of related drugs that have similarRead More The Impact of Performance Enhancing Drugs on Sports Essay3446 Words   |  14 PagesThe Impact of Performance Enhancing Drugs on Sports One of the major issues in the news recently has been the use of performance enhancing substances in sports. This topic has been the subject of many front-page headlines in many publications, from sports magazines to newspapers. A recent scandal involving a San Francisco Bay Area laboratory, BALCO Laboratories, has brought this issue to the forefront, and its really gotten a lot of attention because this case has led to a 42 count federalRead MorePerformance Enhancing Drugs And Supplements Plague The Athletic Playing Field Worldwide2011 Words   |  9 Pageswin, is real; it is embodied by the usage of performance enhancing drugs. Blood doping increases the count of red blood cells in the body, anabolic steroids accelerate the growth of muscle and strengthen the bones, and stimulants increase alertness, competitiveness, aggressiveness and reduce fatigue. All of these materials have clear benefits but the health implications are still very present. Many cases of injury from these su bstances have consequences as serious as death. Athletes worldwide put theirRead MoreErgogenic Aids Essay3570 Words   |  15 PagesErgogenic aids are substances or devices that enhance energy production, for use for recovery and provide athletes with a competitive advantage. Numerous ergogenic aids claim to enhance sports performance and are used by amateur and professional athletes. Approximately 50 percent of the general population has reported taking some form of dietary supplements, while 76 to 100 percent of athletes in some sports are reported to use them. Physicians can evaluate these products by examining four factorsRead MoreAloe : Plant, Burn Aloe, Aloe2007 Words   |  9 Pagesthe plant from animal consumption. Gel - Containing 99% water and 1% glucomannans (a type of water-soluble fibre), amino acids (building blocks of protein), lipids (fats), sterols (solid steroids found in plant/animal fats, eg.cholesterol) and vitamins. This clear gel is what is useful to humans. It is comprised of two parts: Mucilage Gel – The outer part of the gel collected for the production of aloe gel. Inner Gel – The inner part of the gel containing amino acids. Scent: The plant and its gelRead MoreThe Importance Of Access For Safe And Abundant Clean Water1934 Words   |  8 Pagescontaminants on the water supply. Close to 70% of Americans take at least one prescription drug, and that number has been steadily increasing over the past several decades1. With this high level of ingestion of both prescription and over the counter medications, consideration of the total lifetime effect of pharmaceuticals in the environment is paramount. After consumption or disposal of medications, the drugs typically accrue in the water supply. Once in environmental waters, these potent chemicalsRead More The Miracle Cure or Nightmare Drug? Essay3213 Words   |  13 PagesThe Miracle Cure or Nightmare Drug? I. Introduction It is pretty safe to say that the majority of the population, if given the opportunity, would like to be in good physical shape. For men it’s the perfect â€Å"V† shape, with muscles so finely sculpted, Michelangelo himself would be hard-pressed to mold a finer figure out of clay. For women, the desired look is the â€Å"hour glass† figure, with voluptuous breasts, thin and firm abs, and sharply defined legs. Of all those who desire to haveRead MoreSocm Study Guide Essay30404 Words   |  122 Pagesadaptability) B. Growth – over a lifetime, organisms grow larger through an increase in size or number of cells. Differentiation is when cells have specialized functions C. Reproduction – Organisms reproduce, creating subsequent generations of similar organisms D. Movement – Organisms are capable of movement a. Internal – moving food, blood, or other materials internally b. External – moving through environment E. Metabolism – Organisms rely on complex chemical reactions

Friday, May 15, 2020

Where Do Alcoholic Beverages Come From

The alcohol that you can drink, called ethyl alcohol or ethanol, is produced by fermenting carbohydrates, such as sugars and starches. Fermentation is an anaerobic process used by yeast to convert sugars into energy. Ethanol and carbon dioxide are waste products of the reaction. The reaction for the fermentation of glucose to produce ethanol and carbon dioxide is: C6H12O6 → 2C2H5OH 2CO2 The fermented product (e.g., wine) can be used, or it can be distilled to concentrate and purify the alcohol (e.g., vodka, tequila). Where Does Alcohol Come From? Just about any plant matter can be used to produce alcohol. Here are the source materials for several popular alcoholic beverages: Ale:  Fermented from malt with hopsBeer:  Brewed and fermented from malted cereal grain (e.g., barley), flavored with hopsBourbon:  Whiskey distilled from a mash of not less than 51 percent corn and aged in new charred oak barrels for at least two yearsBrandy:  Distilled from wine or fermented fruit juiceCognac:  Brandy distilled from white wine from a specific region of FranceGin:  Distilled or redistilled neutral grain spirits from a variety of sources, flavored with juniper berries and other aromaticsRum:  Distilled from a sugarcane product such as molasses or sugarcane juiceSake:  Produced by a brewing process using riceScotch:  Whiskey distilled in Scotland typically from malted barleyTequila:  A Mexican liquor distilled from blue agaveVodka:  Distilled from a mash of potatoes, rye, or wheatWhiskey:  Distilled from a mash of grain such as rye, corn, or barleyWine:  Fermented juice of fresh grapes and/or other fruit (e.g., blackberry wine) Any material that contains sugars or starches could be used as a starting point for fermentation to produce alcohol. Difference Between Distilled Spirits and Fermented Beverages Although all alcohol is produced from fermentation, some beverages are further purified via distillation. Fermented beverages are consumed as is, possibly after filtration to remove sediments. The fermentation of grain (beer) and grapes (wine) can produce other byproducts, including toxic methanol, but they are present in low enough amounts that they dont typically cause health problems.   Distilled beverages, called spirits, start out as fermented beverages, but then distillation occurs. The liquid is heated at a carefully controlled temperature to separate components of the mixture based on their boiling points. The portion that boils at a lower temperature than ethanol is called the heads. Methanol is one of the components removed with the heads. The ethanol boils next, to be recovered and bottled. At a higher temperature, the tails boil. Some of the tails may be included in the final product because these chemicals add unique flavor. Sometimes additional ingredients (coloring and flavoring) are added to distilled spirits to make the final product. Fermented beverages usually have a lower alcohol content than spirits. A typical spirit is 80 proof, which is 40 percent alcohol by volume. Distillation may be considered a method of improving the purity of alcohol and of concentrating it. However, because water and ethanol form an azeotrope, 100 percent pure alcohol cant be obtained by simple distillation. The highest purity of ethanol that can be obtained by distillation is called absolute alcohol.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Analysis Of The Book What Every Environmentalist Needs...

Student Name: Huanbing Zhang Student Number: 999611503 JGE 331 Book Review (what every environmentalist needs to know about capitalism) To begin this critical review of this book, the brief and precise introduction and summary of the whole book is needed before discussing with the authors’ main arguments. However, this book is mainly emphasizing the magic relations between the capitalism and current environmental problems. In the other words, while there are some people who argued that the capitalism thinking is necessarily required for addressing all of the problem, not just environmental ones, human are encountering the authors argued for the opposite side of that, especially in terms of such all of environmental issues that the authors have listed in chapter one as â€Å"rapid speed of the melting glacier, ocean acidification due to the increase in carbon dioxide emissions, loss of biodiversity, ground water pollution and deplete, changed natural land pattern†(p. 14), the capitalism instead is a rooted problem that makes these environmental issues worse. Following that, the authors gave the enough amounts of evidences explaining why capitalism thinking changed the way in which people lived from getting natural resources for their basic necessity to unlimited calling for the never enough for luxury life. Therefore, as the needs for natural resources grew infinitely the authors thought that it is no doubt that the environmental issues would be worse with capitalism thinkingShow MoreRelated`` This Changes Everything : Capitalism Vs. The Climate ``1799 Words   |  8 Pagesattempts with her book â€Å"This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. the Climate†, attempts to reboot contemporary thinking around this notion. The author is an award-winning activist journalist and author of the world s best bestsellers No logo, no space, no choice, no work and Shock Doctrine. How Modern Capitalism Uses Natural Disasters and Social Crises. She is engaged with several liberal magazines, including Rolling Ston e and The Guardian. â€Å"This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. the Climate†Read MoreAn Analysis Of Naomi Klein s Writing On Climatic Change Versus Capitalism1988 Words   |  8 Pageshas changed the thoughts and beliefs of quite some people in her book This Changes Everything. Her writing on climatic change versus capitalism has transformed many people’s mindsets through the various solutions that she has provided. Naomi points out many helpful solutions in her book, but then not all of them are useful to the people as discussed. The cause of this uncertainty is the provision of incomplete information in her book. However, there are some critiques of her writing which includeRead MoreThis Changes Everything Book Analysis. â€Å"This Changes Everything:1980 Words   |  8 PagesThis Changes Everything Book Analysis â€Å"This Changes Everything: Capitalism Vs The Climate† is written by Naomi Klein and explores the devastating effects of climate change and how people worldwide are refusing to take action to fix it. The main topics that the book covers include the way that people look away from climate change issues to serve their own needs. She also covers how the Government has not bothered to tackle the issues of climate change due to the greed and selfishness that humans holdRead MoreThe 1988 Free Trade Agreement1931 Words   |  8 Pagesthe 1988 free trade agreement with the United States of America is to ask a complicated question that is likely to garner a different answer from each respondent. The best that one can do when analyzing the multitude of components that led to this agreement is to eliminate any pre-conceived notions that they may hold about liberalized trade, and attempt to objectively assess the issues that this country faced in the years leading up to 1988. Free trad e between Canada and the US is likely one of theRead MoreEssay on Should Polluters Pay For Polluting? 1998 Words   |  8 PagesThesis: If polluters are harming the environment, the pollution is a moral danger to the ecosystem and should be resolved. If polluters can pay economic compensation for their disruption of the environment, this will not necessarily resolve the problems of the environment. Three authors in this essay offer different perspectives on the issue of making polluters pay, their explicit views of this subject are not observably mentioned in their work, just different positions for and against the ideaRead MorePolitical Risk Management and Insurance: A Contextual Comparison12751 Words   |  51 PagesAbstract This dissertations presents concept of political risk in the context of Efficient Market Theory (Hypothesis) and State capitalism. The paper explores the link between the three ways of insuring political risk to economic theories. Using case study of a multinational firm the political regime and its effect has been explored on business situations and how it can be managed. Political risks are the threats arising for a business due to the actions of a host government. Multinational firmsRead MoreTracing Theoretical Approaches to Crime and Social Control: from Functionalism to Postmodernism16559 Words   |  67 PagesMany individuals played an important role in the production of this thesis, and I would like to take this opportunity to note my heartfelt appreciation. First, I am indebted in particular to my entire family; most importantly, Mom; every path I have taken has been to make you proud, and I hope to fulfill your dreams through my shoes. I would also like to thank my sister Michelina, Joel, Dad, Nanny, Ken Jarret, Uncle Ian Aunt Kari, my guardian angel Thomas, Gran my late Grampy–without yourRead MoreEnvironment: Energy Development and Environmental Problems11602 Words   |  47 Pagesemissions today, much of such emissions are from industrial activity from companies owned by rich nations. --Physical location is thus not as important as national ownership. | Ability | It is the rich nations who possess most of the technological know-how and financial means to deal with environmental catastrophe and to research possible alternative energy solutions. It is also the rich nations who are able to most help the developing nations when it comes to coping with the consequences of globalRead MoreSience23554 Words   |  95 Pages and answer the following questions. 1. What is the greenhouse effect? 2. How does it relate to climate change? 3. Draw and label the greenhouse effect. 4. Scroll down to the section â€Å"The Greenhouse Effect is Natural. What do we have to do with it?† What are some ways that humans are thought to be contributing to climate change? 5. Scroll down to the section â€Å"Small Average Global Temperature Change can have a Big Impact.† (Do not use the large mapRead MoreContemporary Issues in Management Accounting211377 Words   |  846 Pagesterms agreed with the appropriate reprographics rights organization. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the scope of the above should be sent to the Rights Department, Oxford University Press, at the address above You must not circulate this book in any other binding or cover and you must impose the same condition on any acquirer British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Data available Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data Data available Typeset by SPI Publisher Services

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Teams are Critical to Organisational Effectiveness

Question: Describe about the Teams are Critical to Organisational Effectiveness? Answer: Introduction: Although few scholars differentiate between the work groups and the work teams, but there is as such no distinction between the two terms. Work teams and groups are composed of atleast two members and sometimes more than two members. Teams are mostly there to perform the tasks organizationally and all the team members have the same goals. The members of the group interact socially and they communicate to make the goals of the organization successful. The members of the team influence each other for the overall improvement in the performance of the individual as well as the organization (Digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu, 2015). A team is a grouping of people where each and every member of the group possesses a certain expertise. The members of the team are capable of individual decision making and they work in mutual understanding towards the betterment of the organization. The purpose of the team is to is to achieve the goal of the organization (Zaccaro, Rittman and Marks, 2015). Teams in a contemporary workplace The organizations day by day are becoming leaner, flatter and more agile. The main job of the organization is to satisfy the needs of the customers. The jobs are becoming too critical with each passing day. The jobs in the organization are becoming time bound and global in nature. These factors are making it difficult for the employees in the organization to work individually on a particular job. The contemporary workplace is seeing the teams as the basic unit of work in the work place. In todays world, the companies are trying deliberately to remain competitive in the business (Glasl and Ballreich, 2015). The companies are deliberately trying to reduce the work force as well as restructuring the organization people and processes. The effectiveness of the teams within the organization is based on the structure of the organization, the contribution of the individual members of the team and the processes of the team. The organizational structure is based on the following areas like specified tasks, adequate resources, distinct roles, suitable leadership, clear purpose, appropriate culture and relevant members. The above structural characteristics are discussed below: Specified tasks- the teams of the organization need to perform specific tasks in the organization and contribute to the organization. The teams need to have purpose, attitude and ability to do a job (Organizational Effectiveness Discovering How to Make It Happen, 2015). The tasks of the teams must be motivating enough and the members of the team must share the responsibility for the achievement. For example a health care team must clearly define the complex and the inter-related patient care regime which each member of the team must perform and address to. Adequate resources- the teams in the organization must be provided with enough resources. The resources can be financial resources, professional education and technical support. The cost for creating and maintaining a team needs to be sufficiently recognized and the adequately resourced. Distinct roles- the roles of the individual members of the team needs to be clarified and as well as understood by all the members. It is also to be kept in mind that the roles of the people in the team are influenced by the individual expectations, interpersonal and organizational factors (MICKAN and RODGER, 2015). The individuals need to settle their roles in the organization so that they are able to perform meaningful and unique tasks; as well the roles of the individuals in the team can be interchanged. Suitable leadership- if the tasks of the team are critical then the team needs to have a leader. The teams stage of progress should be reflected by the Leadership. The leaders need to have a focus on the vision of the company. They should facilitate the setting of the goal, evaluate achievements and educate. The team members become confident enough if the leaders carry out their responsibility properly. Clear purpose- the members of the team needs to have a clear mission statement, a particular behavior and assumptions of the work being undertaken. When the mission statement of the organization are circulated and the members of the team are fully aware of it then only the team will be able motivated and engaged in the work and take forward the goals of the organization. Appropriate culture- the teams of the organizations need to have integration and recognition in the organization (Schroeder, 2015). The organizations on the other hand should clearly define the expectation and the accountability for all the members of the team. The cultural needs of the organization are to transform the shared values of the organization into the behavioral norms. Relevant members- the teams in the organizations should have the right number of people in the team. The members of the team need to have an appropriate mix of the interpersonal skills as well as the urgency of the delivery of the tasks (Member Roles and Team Effectiveness within Large Hospitality Organisations, 2006). There must be a homogenous and a heterogeneous mixture of the skills, backgrounds and the interests is preferred by the company. How the organizations utilize the teams A large number of the organizations embraced the use of teams in the workplace. It is very common to hear that the companies are committed to build a culture which is team based. The companies use their teams for every aspect of their business. They are engaged from process improvement to improving the quality of the products and also to innovate, to develop the products and also corporate celebrations (Innovation in Organisations, 2012). It was seen in an survey that the companies engage the teams on special projects as well as in the handling of the improvements and the innovation tasks. The work of the organization is accomplished by the teams who are seen by the companies as a vehicle for the enhancement of the profitability and the productivity. Obstacles to the organization effectiveness The success of the business or the company is aligned with how far the employees of the company are associated with the strategic goals of the company. To achieve a sustainable effectiveness of the organization the companies must make the teams understand the parts that the individual members of the organization needs to do. The company should also engage the team to various jobs in the organization. The strategic alignment can be achieved by a fit-for purpose model which is capable for an effective people and work culture and system. Every organization despite of the country or the industry seeks effective results which are of superior quality. Several business strategies are built to achieve those. These strategies are centered on the teams who make the goals of the company being fulfilled (Katz and Lazer, 2015). If the structure, leadership, roles and capability of the teams are not aligned then the organizations face trouble in implementing their strategies. The organizations needs to have effective leadership skills which will in turn enable the employees to be more engaged in the work and they are more willing to work for the and help the organization in achieving the goals. It can be said that the teamwork is a complicated phenomenon. The organization needs to be supportive and the individual contribution of the team needs to be realized for an effective team work. Every team needs to have clear purpose in order to be effective. When the mission of the organization is in sync with the purpose of the teams then the teams can be more supported, integrated and resourced (Mealiea and Baltazar, 2015). The team members also need to recognize as well as value their contributions in the team. Once a team has developed a clear structure of their works, they need to maintain that position through clear co-ordination and communication (Team Communication, 2015). Obstacles to the team effectiveness The organization employs the teams in order to boost the effectiveness and the productivity. It needs to be kept in mind that by only putting a team in work does not ensure any productivity or good result. The teams are a complex structure; they are dynamic and thriving entities which completes with problems and personalities of their own. The communication and the relationship issues get magnified as the number of members in the team increases. Even if the teams are not trained, they do not have any vision and goal then it can lead to a disaster for the company. Ineffective communication among the members of the team as well as the company leads to the failure of goals and is considered as one of the many barriers to the effectiveness of the team as well the organization (De Meuse, 2015). Without the effective communication the conflicts remained unresolved and the information did not flow out to the company and the effectiveness of the teams was lost. It is not very fruitful to put a team to work without proper training nd it can ultimately lead to failure of the individual as well as the team. The team leader has certain distinct roles to be performed in the team. The leader must have a vision that is aligned to the companys goals and the leader must motivate the members to function effectively in the team. Poor leadership often leads to derailed efforts of the team. Moreover the lack of clarity off the jobs among the members of the team is another barrier to the success of the team. How the business can be effective Every organization is composed of teams which are permanent or temporary. In some organizations the teams are formed when they are needed. Teams are now an integral part of the organization and they are considered as a vehicle for the productivity and the profitability. The teams which are empowered are more likely to work better than an individual working on the same project. The organizations form the teams for the purpose of solving the problems of the business (Teamwork and high performance work organisation, 2015). The teams need to be properly trained and supported with the resources in order for them to work productively and effectively. Firstly the organizations need to train the members of the team in order to start an effective communication. The communication is very essential for the free flow of information within the team and also outside the organization. The roles of the team members need to be defined properly while a new team is prepared. Secondly the company must e mpower the teams to think on their own so that the teams can accomplish what they want to do and what they want to achieve. They must figure out how they will work together and what the end results will look like (Working Well, 2015). The organization only needs to guide the teams in accomplishing their tasks and needs to motivate them to achieve the goals of the organizations. The company must make the team participate in organizational culture by providing a development process and improving the skills of the team members. With higher productivity the satisfaction of the job also increases. With proper guidance the teams are able to participate in creative decision making, improve in the working relationships and flourishing productivity. This will in turn lead to the effectiveness of the business. Conclusion A team becomes successful when the members of the team learn how to work together and they have acceptable and clear goals (The organisational context for teamwork, 2015). There need to be mutual respect within the members of the team and they cooperate and communicate openly with each other and more often. The teams have the potential to become the most powerful driving force behind the success of the organization. But a highly task oriented team is hardly found and it takes time and proper leadership to mature in to an effective team. Once the teams with in the organization shave a well defined and clear structure, the members of the team needs to maintain that by constant cooperation and coordination (The Critical Role of Teams, 2015). There should be constant education and support given to the team and for the development of the team. The team members need to take joint decisions, they need to properly manage the conflict within the team and the company as well as be more effective. All this criteria needs to be incorporated in the team members so that the team is more effective and the teams can contribute to the effectiveness of the company or the organization. It is also necessary for the organization to build an effective team with specialized and skilled people for the effectiveness of the organization. References De Meuse, K. (2015).DRIVING TEAM EFFECTIVENESS(1st ed.). Retrieved from https://www.kornferry.com/media/lominger_pdf/teamswhitepaper080409.pdf Digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu,. (2015). Retrieved 3 March 2015, from https://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1396context=articles Glasl, F., Ballreich, R. (2015).Team and Organisational Development as a Means for Conflict Prevention and Resolution(1st ed.). 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